New Jersey pre-K holds lessons for Mass.
New Jersey pre-K holds lessons for Mass.
In 1998, in the landmark Abbott v. Burke school finance ruling that the New York Times called “the most significant education case” since Brown v. Board of Education, the New Jersey Supreme Court ordered the state to provide high-quality pre-kindergarten in 31 districts with the largest concentrations of low-income families. Fifteen years later, New Jersey has built a nationally recognized, large-scale system of early education that embeds quality across the private and public settings where young children learn. The latest report from a longitudinal study of the program finds substantial benefits that persist through fifth grade.
The New Jersey experience carries lessons for states across the country, but has particular resonance here in Massachusetts, which has focused its early education policy on improving quality throughout a mixed delivery system that includes public school pre-kindergarten, community-based centers, Head Start, and family child care.
This was the message two New Jersey leaders delivered at a recent standing-room-only State House briefing sponsored by Senator Sonia Chang-Diaz and Representative Alice Peisch, co-chairs of the Legislature’s Joint Committee on Education, and by Strategies for Children. It was the message W. Steven Barnett, director of the National Institute of Early Education Research, delivered the same day in Washington when he released fifth grade results from the longitudinal study of children who were in an Abbott class for 4-year-olds in 2004-5. The National Institute found a 10-20 percent narrowing of the achievement gap for children who had one year in an Abbott preschool and a narrowing of 20-40 percent for children who had two years of preschool. (Read the news release. Read the study.)
“These findings not only rebut those who assert that pre-K is a waste of money because gains inevitably fade out, but they also point to the importance of high quality in ensuring persistent gains,” he writes. “Adopting a version of the New Jersey model of universal pre-K would secure Massachusetts’ position as a leader in education and do much to ensure that the commonwealth maintains its top position in achievement nationally and internationally as we move through the 21st century.”
The recent State House briefing comes as the Legislature considers Governor Patrick’s proposed $131 million in new investments for high-quality early education in fiscal year 2014.
Several factors contribute to New Jersey’s success. With Abbott school districts lacking the capacity to add two years of preschool within their buildings, the court ordered them to utilize community-based providers and Head Start. The approach required teachers in all settings, public and private, to have bachelor’s degrees and certification in early childhood – and established a scholarship to help early educators meet this requirement.Once community-based early educators achieved certification, their pay was raised to be comparable with public school salaries. All settings meet state preschool standards, which are aligned with K-12, and all settings utilize research-based curriculum. The Abbott preschools are state-funded, with money flowing through school districts to public pre-kindergartens, community-based providers and Head Start.
Currently, 45,000 young children – a participation rate of close to 90 percent in the targeted districts — attend an Abbott preschool, with 56 percent attending pre-kindergarten in community-based settings and 44 percent attending pre-kindergarten in public schools. Nearly every Abbott preschool classroom, regardless of setting, has achieved a score of at least 5 (out of 7) on the Early Childhood Environmental Rating Scale (ECERS-R).
“This is truly a national model for mixed delivery,” Cynthia Rice, a senior policy analyst with Advocates for Children of New Jersey, told the briefing audience.
Implementation of the court’s original 1998 order evolved over the years, with subsequent rulings in 2000 and 2002. “They’re masterful policy briefs on what we need to do to build a system of high-quality early education system to prepare children for kindergarten and ultimately close achievement gaps,” David Sciarra, executive director of the Newark-based Education Law Center and attorney for the Abbott plaintiffs, said at the briefing. “We’re not going to close achievement gaps for poor kids in poor districts, not just in Massachusetts but across the country, unless every child has high-quality pre-K like this.”
In 2008, New Jersey enacted the School Financing Reform Act, designed to extend the Abbott model to districts across the state. It calls for universal preschool for 3- and 4-year-olds in districts where more than 4 percent of children are from low-income families and for targeted services for low-income children in other districts. The law, however, has yet to be funded and implemented.